If you would like more information about the vaquita, see below.  Our group has produced brochures and children’s coloring books (both available in English, Spanish, and Chinese) to inform people about the vaquita and its plight.

Popular and scientific papers on the vaquita are also listed below, with links for those that are available.

Brochures (downloadable PDF files)




Anita the Vaquita! Coloring Book (downloadable PDF files)




References (downloadable PDF files & web links)

ABURTO-OROPEZA, O., LOPEZ-SAGASTEGUI, C., MORENO-BAEZ, M., MASCARENA-OSORIO, I., JIMINEZ-ESQUIVEL, V., JOHNSON, A.F. & ERISMAN, B. 2016. Endangered Species, Ecosystem Integrity, and Human Livelihoods. Conservation Letters, ??, 1-8.

AFFLERBACH, J., A. BRODERICK, D. J. BRUNKOW, S. HERRON, J. SAINZ, AND S. SOHRABIAN.  2013.  An analysis of bioeconomic tradeoffs in vaquita conservation policies.   Group project report, WWF Mexico, 12pp.

AVILA-FORCADA,A, S., MARTINEZ-CRUZ, A.L. and MUNOZ-PINA, C. 2012. Conservation of the vaquita marina in the northern Gulf of California. Marine Policy, 36(3):613-622.

BARLOW, J. 1986. Factors affecting the recovery of Phocoena sinus, the vaquita or Gulf of California harbor porpoise. Southwest Fisheries Center Administrative Report LJ-86-37:19 pp.

BARLOW, J., L. ROJAS-BRACHO, C. MUÑOZ-PIÑA, and S. MESNICK. 2010. Conservation of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus) in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. In: R.Q. Grafton, et al. (eds.), Handbook of marine fisheries conservation and management, pp. 205-214. Oxford University Press, New York.

BARLOW, J., L. FLEISCHER, K. A. FORNEY and O. MARAVILLA-C. 1993. An experimental aerial survey for vaquita (Phocoena sinus) in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 9:89-94.

BARLOW, J., T. GERRODETTE and G. SILBER. 1997. First estimates of vaquita abundance. Marine Mammal Science 13:44-58.

BARNES, L. G. 1985. Evolution, taxonomy, and antitropical distributions of the porpoises (Phocoenidae, Mammalia). Marine Mammal Science 1:15-53.

BOBADILLA, M., S. ALVAREZ-BORREGO, S. AVILA-FOUCAT, F. LARA-VALENCIA and I. ESPEJEL. 2011. Evolution of environmental policy instruments implemented for the protection of totoaba and the vaquita porpoise in the Upper Gulf of California. Environmental Science and Policy 14(8):998-1007.

BODEO-LOMICKY, A. 2013. The Vaquita: The Biology of An Endangered Porpoise. Self Published.

BODEO-LOMICKY, A. and W WHITTENBURY. 2015. Why the extinction of the vaquita should matter to all of us- A teenager’s perspective. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, 8:3-5.

BROWNELL, R. L. 1978. Vaquita or cochito. Pages ?? in Red data book. Vol. 1: Mammalia (H. A. Goodwin and C. W. Holloway). IUCN.

BROWNELL, R. L. 1982. Status of the cochitoPhocoena sinus, in the Gulf of California. Pp. 85-90 in Mammals in the seas, Vol. 4. Small cetaceans, seals, sirenians, and otters FAO Fisheries Series.

BROWNELL, R. L. 1983. Phocoena sinus. Mammalian Species 198:3 pp.

BROWNELL, R. L. 1986. Distribution of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, in Mexican waters. Marine Mammal Science 2:299-305.

BROWNELL, R. L., L. T. FINDLEY, O. VIDAL, A. ROBLES and S. MANZANILLA N. 1987. External morphology and pigmentation of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: Mammalia). Marine Mammal Science 3:22-30.

BROWNELL, R. L. 1988. The vaquita: can it survive? Endangered Species Technical Bulletin 13:7-8.

CALAMBOKIDIS, J. 1988. Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the Gulf of California harbor porpoise (Phocoena sinus). Unpublished contract report by Cascadia Research Collective.

CANTU-GUZMAN, J.C., A. OLIVIERA-BONAVILLA, and M. E.SANCHEZ-SALDANA. 2015. A history (1990-2015) of mismanaging the vaquita into extinction – A Mexican NGO’s perspective. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 8:15-25.

CASTELAZZI,I, G., KRYSL, P., ROJAS, L. and CRANFORD, T.W. 2012. Assessment of the effect of natural and anthropogenic aquatic noise on vaquita (Phocoena sinus) through a numerical simulation. In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life (ed. by A.N.P.A. Hawkings), pp. 307-309. Springer

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2004. CIRVA: Scientific reports. Unpublished Report, 67pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2012. Report of the Fourth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. Ensenada, Baja California, México20–23 February, Unpublished Report, 47pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2014. Report of the Fifth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. Ensenada, Baja California, México, 8-10 July 2014, Unpublished Report, 38pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2015. Report of the Sixth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. San Diego, California, 22 May 2015, Unpublished Report, 55pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2016. Report of the Seventh Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. Ensenada, Baja California, México, May 10-23, 2016, Unpublished Report, 76pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2017.  Report of the Eigth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. La Jolla, CA, USA, November 29-30, 2016, Unpublished Report, 69pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2017.  Report of the Ninth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. La Jolla, CA, USA, April 25-26 2017, Unpublished Report, 32pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2018.  Report of the Tenth Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. La Jolla, CA, USA, December 11-12 2017, Unpublished Report, 65pp.

CIRVA (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita). 2019.  Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita. La Jolla, CA, USA, February 19-21 2019, Unpublished Report, 34pp.

Cisneros-Mata, M.A., Delgado, J.A., & Rodríguez-Félix, D. (2021). Viability of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) population, threatened by poaching of Totoaba macdonaldi (Perciformes: Sciaenidae). DOI 10.15517/rbt.v69i2.45475.

D’AGROSA, C., O. VIDAL and W. C. GRAHAM. 1995. Mortality of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus) in gillnet fisheries during 1993-94. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 16:283-294.

D’AGROSA, C., C. E. LENNERT-CODY and O. VIDAL. 2000. Vaquita bycatch in Mexico’s artisanal gillnet fisheries: driving a small population to extinction. Conservation Biology 14:1110-1119.

DALTON, R. 2004. Net losses pose extinction risk for porpoise. Nature 429:590.

ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATION AGENCY. 2016. Dual extinction: The illegal trade in the endangered totoaba and its impact on the critically endangered vaquita. Report. 10 pp.

ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATION AGENCY.. 2016. Collateral damage: How illegal trade in totoaba swim bladders is driving the vaquita to extinction. Report. 18 pp.

ESCATEL LUNA, R. E. 1995. Estudio de la musculatura craneal y cervical de la vaquita Phocoena sinus, Norris and McFarland 1958 (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). UNAM, thesis.

ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS, GOBEIRNO FEDERAL. 2008. Program de Accion para la Conservacion de la Especie: Vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Mexican Government Publication, SEMARNAT.

FAJARDO-MELLOR, L., A. BERTA, R. L. BROWNELL, C. C. BOY and R. N. P. GOODALL. 2006. The phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of true porpoises (Mammalia: Phocoenidae) based on morphological data. Marine Mammal Science 22:910-932.

FELBAB-BROWN, V. and A. C. LOPEZ. 2021. Restore US-Mexico seafood trade and save the vaquita. Mexico Today. May 7th, 7pp.

FITCH, J. E. and R. L. BROWNELL. 1968. Fish otoliths in cetacean stomachs and their importance in interpreting feeding habits. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25:2561-2574.

FLANAGAN, C. A. and J. R. HENDRICKSON. 1976. Observations on the commercial fishery and reproductive biology of the totoaba, Cynoscion macdonaldi, in the northern Gulf of California. Fishery Bulletin 74:531-545.

FLEISCHER, L., R. M. COOLEY, H. PEREZ-CORTES MORENO and A. P. ORTIZ. 1996. Analisis de la mortalidad incidental de la vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Historia y actualidad (abril de 1994). Ciencia Pesquera 13:78-82.

FLEISCHER, L. and H. PEREZ-CORTES MORENO. 1996. Diagnosis del recurso vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Ciencia Pesquera 13:83-86.

GASKIN, D. E., G. J. D. SMITH, A. P. WATSON, W. Y. YASUI and D. B. YURICK. 1984. Reproduction in porpoises (Phocoenidae): implications for managment. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 6:135-148.

GERRODETTET. and L. ROJAS-BRACHO.  2011.  Estimating the success of protected areas for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Marine MammaScience 27:E101-E12.

GERRODETTE, T. and L. ROJAS-BRACHO. 2012. Inference from limited data: A response to Lonergan. Marine Mammal Science 28(4):785-789.

GERRODETTE, T., B.L. TAYLOR, R. SWIFT, S. RANKIN, A.M. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA and L. ROJAS-BRACHO. 2011. A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinusMarine Mammal Science. 27(2): E79–E100 (April).

GERRODETTE, , T., L. A. FLEISCHER, H. PEREZ-CORTES and B. VILLA RAMIREZ. 1995. Distribution of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, based on sightings from systematic surveys. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 16:273-282.

GOLDFARB, B. 2016. Can captive breeding save Mexico’s vaquita? Scientists mull a risky strategy to save an imperiled porpoise. Science, 353.

HERRERA, Y, E. SANJURJO and C. GLASS. 2017. A comprehensive review of the research on alternative gear to gillnets in the Upper Gulf of California (2004 – 2016). Expert Committee on Fishing Technology (ECOFT). Working paper num. 1: 35pp.

HOHN, A. A., A. J. READ, S. FERNANDEZ, O. VIDAL and L. T. FINDLEY. 1996. Life history of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus (Phocoenidae, Cetacea). Journal of Zoology, London 239:235-251.

HOHN, A. A. and C. D’AGROSA. 1997. Vaquita conservation: current science and management. IBI Reports 7:45-56.

IUCN. 2011. Vaquita, Phocoena sinus. In: Species on the Edge of Survival. IUCN and HarperCollins Publishers, p. 287.

JARAMILLO LEGORETTA, A., L. ROJAS-BRACHO, R. L. BROWNELL JR., A. J. READ, R. R. REEVES, K. RALLS and B. L. TAYLOR. 2007. Saving the vaquita: Immediate action, not more data. Conservation Biology 21:1653-1655.

JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA, A., L. ROJAS-BRACHO and T. GERRODETTE. 1999. A new abundance estimate for vaquitas: first step for recovery. Marine Mammal Science 15:957-973.

JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA, A., CARDENAS-HINEJOSA, G., NIETO-GARCIA, E., ROJAS-BRACHO, L., VER HOEF, J., MOORE, J.E., TREGENZA, N., BARLOW, J., GERRODETTE, T., THOMAS, L., AND TAYLOR, B. L. 2017.  Passive acoustic monitoring of the decline of Mexico’s critically endangered vaquita. Conservation Biology 31:183–191.

JEFFERSON, TA. (Editor).  2010.  Porpoises in Peril: The Vaquita and its Relatives. Whalewatcher (Special Issue) 39(1), 33 pp.

JEFFERSON, T. A. (Editor). ) 2011. Saving the vaquita: Are we doing all we can? Workshop Report Summary. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology (2)2: 29-36.

JEFFERSON, T.A. 2015. A bad precedent: What the loss of the vaquita would mean to marine mammal conservation. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, 8:6-9.

JEFFERSON, T. A. and D. KUTZ. 2011. ¡Viva Vaquita!: A Race Against TIme to Save an Elusive Yet Endangered Marine Mammal. The Explorer’s Journal (Special Report) 89(2):12-13.

JEFFERSON, T. A. and B. E. CURRY. 1994. A global review of porpoise (Cetacea, Phocoenidae) mortality in gillnets. Biological Conservation 67:167-183.

JEFFERSON, T. A., P. A. OLSON, T. R. KIECKHEFER and L. ROJAS-BRACHO. 2009. Photo-identification of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus): The world’s most endangered cetacean. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2): 53-56.

KAMMINGA, C., S. COHEN and G. K. SILBER. 1996. Investigations on cetacean sonar XI: intrinsic comparison of the wave shapes of some members of the Phocoenidae family. Aquatic Mammals 22:45-56.

LAMONTHE-ARGUMENDO, R. 1988. Trematodos de mamiferos marinos III. Hallazgo de Synthesium tursionis (Marchi, 1873) stundard y alevy 1930 en Phocoena sinus (Phocoenidae) en el Golfo del California, Mexico. Anales de la Instituto Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologie 58:11-19

LIEBIG, P. M., T.-S. A. TAYLOR and K. W. FLESSA. 2003. Bones on the beach: marine mamal taphonomy of the Colorado Delta, Mexico. Palaois 18:168-175.

MAGATAGAN, M. D., E. H. BOYER and B. VILLA-RAMIREZ. 1984. Revision del estado que guarda Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland y descripcion de tres nuevos ejemplares. Anales de la Instituto Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologie 55:271-294.

MCGUIRE, T. R. and G. C. VALDEZ-GARDEA. 1997. Endangered species and precarious lives in the Upper Gulf of California. Culture and Agricultur19:101-107.

MORZARIA-LUNA,A, H.N., AINSWORTH, C.H., KAPLAN, I.C. and FULTON. 2012. Exploring trade-offs between fisheries and conservation of the vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus) using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model. PLOS ONE 7(8) e42917.

MUNGUIA-VEGA, A., Y. ESQUER-GARIGOS, L. ROJAS-BRACHO, R. VAZQUEZ-JAEZ, A. CASTRO-PIETO and F.-R. S. 2007. Genetic drift vs. natural selection in a long-term small isolated population: major histocompatibility complex class II variation in the Gulf of California endemic porpoise (Phoceona sinus). Molecular Ecology 16:4051-4065

NOBLE, B. A. and F. C. FRASER. 1971. Description of a skeleton and supplementary notes on the skull of a rare porpoise Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland 1958. Journal of Natural History 5:447-464.

NORRIS, K. S. and W. N. MCFARLAND. 1958. A new harbor porpoise of the genus Phocoena from the Gulf of California. Journal of Mammalogy 39:22-39.

NORRIS, K. S. and J. H. PRESCOTT. 1961. Observations on Pacific cetaceans of Californian and Mexican waters. University of California Publications in Zoology 63:291-402.

ORR, R. T. 1969. An additional record of Phocoena sinusJournal of Mammalogy 50:384.

ORTEGA-ORTIZ, J. G. 1993. Descripcion osteolgica de la aleta pectoral da la vaquita Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). UNAM, thesis

ORTEGA-ORTIZ, J. G., B. VIIA-RAMIREZ and J. R. GERSENOWIES. 2000. Polydactyly and other features of the manus of the vaquita, Phocoena sinusMarine Mammal Science 16:277-286.

PENNISI, E. 2017. After failed rescue effort, rare porpoise in extreme peril. Science 358:851.

PERALTA PEREZ, M. A. 1994. Variacion morfometrica con respecto la edad y al sexo en el craneo de Phocoena sinus Norris Y McFarland 1958. UNAM, thesis.

PEREZ-CORTES MORENO, H., G. K. SILBER and B. VILLA RAMIREZ. 1996. Contribucion al conocimiento de la alimentacion de la vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Ciencia Pesquera 13:66-72.

PHILBRICK, V. A., P. C. FIEDLER and S. B. REILLY. 2002. Report of ecosystem studies conducted during the 1997 vaquita abundance survey on the research vessel David Starr Jordan. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC 339:35 pp.

PITMAN, R. L. and L. ROJAS-BRANCHO. 2007. How now, little cow? Natural History 28-32.

PLATT, J. 2009. Last chance to save the vaquita porpoise from extinction? Scientific American Inc.

ROBLES, A., O. VIDAL and L. T. FINDLEY. 1987. La totoaba y la vaquita: Mexicanas en peligro de extincion. Informacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONACYT) 9:4-6.

ROJAS-BRACHO, L. and B. L. TAYLOR. 1999. Risk factors affecting the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15:974-989.

ROJAS-BRACHO, L. and B. L. TAYLOR. 2017. Phocoena sinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T17028A50370296. 

ROJAS-BRACHO, L. and A. M. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA/  2009.2. Vaquita Phocoena sinus. Pp. 1196-1208 in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Second Edition s (W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen). Academic Press.

ROJAS-BRACHO, L. 2003. What is the vaquita? Whalewatcher 35:10-12.

ROJAS-BRACHOL. and R.R. REEVES. 2013. Vaquitas and gillnets: Mexico’s ultimate cetacean conservation challenge. Endangered Species Research, 21, 77-87.

ROJAS-BRACHO, , L., R. R. REEVES and A. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA. 2006. Conservation of the vaquita Phocoena sinusMammal Review 36:179-216.

Rojas-Bracho, L., F. M. D. Gulland, C. R. Smith, B. Taylor, R. S. Wells, P. O. Thomas, B. Bauer, M. P. Heide-Jørgensen, J. Teilmann, R. Dietz, J. D. Balle, M. V. Jensen, M. H. S. Sinding, A. Jaramillo-Legorreta, G. Abel, A. J. Read, A. J. Westgate, K. Colegrove, F. Gomez, K. Martz, R. Rebolledo, S. Ridgway, T. Rowles, C. E. Van Elk, J. Boehm, G. Cardenas-Hinojosa, R. Constandse, E. Nieto-Garcia, W. Phillips, D. Sabio, R. Sanchez, J. Sweeney, F. Townsend, J. Vivanco, J. C. Vivanco and S. Walker. 2019. A field effort to capture critically endangered vaquitas Phocoena sinus for protection from entanglement in illegal gillnets. Endangered Species Research 38:11-27.

ROSEL, P. E., M. G. HAYGOOD and W. F. PERRIN. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships among the true porpoises (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4:463-474.

ROSEL, P. E. and L. ROJAS-BRACHO. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the critically endangered vaquita Phocoena sinus Norris and MacFarland, 1958. Marine Mammal Science 15:990-1003.

ROTH, A. 2019. For this species, protection is too little, too late. National Geographic 236:1 page.

SILBER, G. K. 1988. Recent sightings of the Gulf of California harbor porpoise, Phocoena sinus. Journal of Mammalogy 69:430-433.

SILBER, G. K., M. W. NEWCOMER and G. J. BARROS. 1988. Observations on the behavior and ventilation cycles of the vaquita, Phocoena sinusMarine Mammal Science 4:62-67.

SILBER, G. K. 1990. Distributional relations of cetaceans in the northern Gulf of California, with special reference to the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, 145 pp.

SILBER, G. K. 1990. Occurrence and distribution of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus) in the northern Gulf of California. Fishery Bulletin 88:339-346.

SILBER, G. K. and K. S. NORRIS. 1991. Geographic and seasonal distribution of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Anales de la Instituto Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologie 62:263-268.

SILBER, G. K. 1991. Acoustic signals of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Aquatic Mammals 17:130-133.

SILBER, G. K., M. W. NEWCOMER, P. C. SILBER, H. PEREZ-CORTES M. and G. M. ELLIS. 1994. Cetaceans of the northern Gulf of California: distribution, occurrence, and relative abundance. Marine Mammal Science 10:283-298.

TAYLOR, B. L. and T. GERRODETTE. 1993. The uses of statistical power in conservation biology: the vaquita and northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 7:489-500.

TAYLOR, B. L. and L. ROJAS-BRACHO. 1999. Examining the risk of inbreeding depression in a naturally rare cetacean, the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Marine Mammal Science 15:1004-1028.

TAYLOR, B.L., L., ROJAS-BRACHO., MOORE, J.E., JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA, A., VER HOEF, J., CARDENAS-HINEJOSA, G., NIETO-GARCIA, E., BARLOW, J., GERRODETTE, T., TREGENZA, N., THOMAS, L. & HAMMOND, P.S. 2016.  Extinction is Imminent for Mexico’s Endemic Porpoise Unless Fishery Bycatch is Eliminated . Conservation Letters 10(5):588–595.

THOMAS, L., A. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA, G. A. CARDENAS-HINEJOSA, E. NIETO-GARCIA, L. ROJAS-BRACHO, J. VER HOEF, J. MOORE, B. L. TAYLOR, J. BARLOW and N. TREGENZA. 2017.  Last call: Passive acoustic monitoring shows continued rapid decline of critically endangered vaquita . Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 142:EL512.

TORRE, J., O. VIDAL, and R. L. BROWNELL Jr.  2014. Sexual dimorphism and developmental patterns in the external morphology of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Marine Mammal Science 30:1285-1296.

URRUTIA-OSORIO, M. F., A. M. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA and O. SOSA-NISHIZAKI. 2014. Analysis of the artisanal fisheries’ fishing effort dynamics in San Felipe as a bycatch modeling tool for the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Presented in American Cetacean Society’s 14th International Conference, November 7-9, Newport Beach, CA.

URRUTIA-OSORIO, F., A. JARAMILLO-LEGORRETA, L. ROJAS-BRACHO and O. SOSA-NISHIZAKI. 2015. Analysis of the artisanal fisheries of San Felipe, Mexico: Estimating incidental mortality of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus). Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology, 8:26-35.

VANCE, E. 2017. Requiem for the vaquita.  Scientific American 317(2): 36-45.

VIDAL, O. 1991. Catalog of osteological collections of aquatic mammals from Mexico. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 97:36 pp.

VIDAL, O. 1993. Aquatic mammal conservation in Latin America: problems and perspectives. Conservation Biology 7:788-795.

VIDAL, O., L. T. FINDLEY and S. LEATHERWOOD. 1993.  Annotated checklist of the marine mammals of the Gulf of California . Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History 28:1-16.

VIDAL, O. 1995. Population biology and incidental mortality of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 16:247-272.

VIDAL, O., R. L. BROWNELL and L. T. FINDLAY. 1999. Vaquita Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland, 1958. Pp. 357-378 in Handbook of Marine Mammals, Volume 6: The second book of dolphins and the porpoises (S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison). Academic Press.

VILLA-R., B. 1976. Report on the status of Phocoena sinus, Norris and MacFarland 1958, in the Gulf of California. Anales de la Instituto Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologie 47:203-207.

VILLA-R., B. 1990. La vaquita, Phocoena sinus, una especie agonizante. Revista de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico 45:6-8.

VILLA-R., B. 1993.   Recovery plan for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Unpublished report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.

VILLA-R., B., A. DELGADO-ESTRELLA, AND M. A. PERALTA-PEREZ. 1995.   Aportaciones recientes al conocimiento de la biologia y distribucion de Phocoena sinus (Cetacea: Phocoenidae)  . Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 46:163-172

VILLA-R., B., F. PAEZ-OSUNA and H. PEREZ-CORTES M. 1993. Concentraciones de metales pesados en le tejido carniaco, hepatico y renal de la vaquita Phocoena sinus (Mammalia: Phocoenidae). Anales de la Instituto Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologie 64:61-72.

WELLS, R. S., B. WüRSIG and K. S. NORRIS. 1981. A survey of the marine mammals of the upper Gulf of California, Mexico, with an assessment of the status of Phocoena sinus.  Unpublished report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.

WüRSIG, B., T. A. JEFFERSON, G. K. SILBER and R. S. WELLS. 2021. Vaquita: beleaguered porpoise of the Gulf of California, México. THERYA, Vol. 12(2):187-206.

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